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Ольштын: Старый Город «Высокие Ворота»

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Массивное готическое здание доминирующее над всем Старым Городом это один из наиболее характерных памятников архитектуры Oльштына. Высокие Ворота единственные сохранившиеся ворота из трех, которые когда-то являлись частью оборонительной стены вокруг Ольштына. Ворота расположены в северо-восточной части Старого города.

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Ранее их называли Верхними Воротами, ее нынешнее название начали употреблять в XIX в. Сегодня в помещениях ворот может поселиться каждый желающий в оборудованной здесь гостинице.
Здание воздвигнуто в конце XIV в., а его строительство связано с расширением города, начатым в 1378 г. и передвижением части его стен. Через ров окружающий город, вел к нему деревянный мост. В течение следующих веков здание использовалось для обороны и ведения наблюдений. Был это также контрольно-пропускной пункт для лиц приезжающих в город.

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На протяжение лет Высокие Ворота много раз ремонтировали и модернизировали. В 1788 году Высокие ворота были впервые отремонтированы и лучше приспособлены к обороне города, здесь разместилась оружейная эскадрона драгун. В XIX в. здание снова изменило предназначение, когда большинство городских укреплений были разрушены. Перед разделением их судьбы спас здание министром охраны исторических памятников, Фердинанд фон Квост. В процессе осуществляемого им в 1858 г. ремонта перестроено крышу ворот, добавляя стрельчатые фронтоны и слепые окна. Затем здание было преобразовано в тюрьму. В 1880 г. достроено рядом здание для ареста, соединенного с главным лестничной клеткой. В 1895 г.

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В 1863 году здесь в камере номер пять содержался Войцех Кентшинский (1838-1918), обвиняемый в контрабанде оружия для Январского восстания, о чем информирует мемориальная доска на стене пристройки.
В последующие годы в здании размещались пожарная команда, полиция и бюро регистрации. Перед Второй Мировой Войной здание отдано под квартиры. После 1945 г. отдано в распоряжение ПTTK. В 2003 г.проведено реставрацию и реконструкцию фрагмента стены, на которой размещена мемориальная доска к 650-летию города.

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Ворота построены из красного кирпича в готическом стиле с основанием в форме квадрата и стенами длиной 9,5х9,8 метров. Лестница была проложена с восточной стороны. Высота здания – 23 метра. Крыша выполнена со стрельчатыми фронтонами и слепыми окнами. Со стороны города ворота были богато украшены.
В проезде реконструировано деревянную борону, а со стороны старой части города над ней помещена мозаика Матери Божьей Королевы Мира. Мозаика является даром Яна Павла II, о чем информирует мемориальная надпись около бронзовой головы папы римского. Теперь на площади перед Высокими Воротами ведутся археологические раскопки. В их ходе открыты остатки фортификаций, которые могут стать туристической достопримечательностью города.

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Подробная информация на сайте города Ольштын: www.visit.olsztyn.eu

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